# Initialization and bootstrapping¶

There are three ways to start PISM:

• option -i reads a previously-saved “complete” PISM model state in a NetCDF file, or

• option -i -bootstrap reads an “incomplete” NetCDF file and uses heuristics to fill in needed fields, or

• one of the executables pisms or pismv is used to initialize simplified-geometry experiments or verification tests from formulas in the source code, and thus no input file is required.

One of the first two choices is required when using the executable pismr. Modeling usually starts with the -i input.nc -bootstrap option because real ice sheet observations are never complete initial conditions. Runs with multiple stages often use the -i option after the first stage.

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