Documentation for PISM, a parallel Ice Sheet Model

Publications which apply or describe PISM

Most of the publications below apply PISM to real ice flow problems. Some describe model development or numerical methods.

At the bottom are submitted manuscripts. See also how to cite PISM in a publication.

Click here to edit this list.


  • P. Bakker, P. U. Clark, N. R. Golledge, A. Schmittner, M. E. Weber (2017) Centennial-scale Holocene climate variations amplified by Antarctic Ice Sheet discharge. Nature doi bibtex
  • C. J. Fogwill, C. S. M. Turney, N. R. Golledge, others (2017) Antarctic ice sheet discharge driven by atmosphere-ocean feedbacks at the Last Glacial Termination. Scientific Reports 7 doi bibtex
  • N. R. Golledge, R. H. Levy, R. M. McKay, T. R. Naish (2017) East Antarctic ice sheet most vulnerable to Weddell Sea warming. Geophysical Research Letters doi bibtex


  • A. R. A. Aitken, J. L. Roberts, T. D. van Ommen, D. A. Young, N. R. Golledge, J. S. Greenbaum, D. D. Blankenship, M. J. Siegert (2016) Repeated large-scale retreat and advance of Totten Glacier indicated by inland bed erosion. Nature 533 (7603) pp. 385-389. doi bibtex
  • A. Aschwanden, M. A. Fahnestock, M. Truffer (2016) Complex Greenland outlet glacier flow captured. Nature Communications 7 (10524) doi bibtex
  • P. J. Bart, D. Mullally, N. R. Golledge (2016) The influence of continental shelf bathymetry on Antarctic Ice Sheet response to climate forcing . Global and Planetary Change 142 pp. 87–95. doi bibtex
  • P. Becker, J. Seguinot, G. Jouvet, M. Funk (2016) Last Glacial Maximum precipitation pattern in the Alps inferred from glacier modelling. Geographica Helvetica 71 (3) pp. 173–187. doi bibtex
  • P. Clark, twenty others (2016) Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change. Nature Clim. Change 6 pp. 360–369. doi bibtex
  • P. Dickens, C. Dufour, J. Fastook (2016) A prototype implementation of an embedded simulation system for the study of large scale ice sheets. In Proceedings of the 2016 Winter Simulation Conference. pp. 1781–1789. IEEE. web bibtex
  • J. Feldmann, A. Levermann (2016) Similitude of ice dynamics against scaling of geometry and physical parameters. The Cryosphere 10 (4) pp. 1753–1769. doi bibtex
  • C. Fogwill, N. Golledge, H. Millman, C. Turney (2016) The East Antarctic Ice Sheet as a source of sea-level rise: A major tipping element in the climate system?. PAGES Magazine 24 (1) pp. 8–9. web bibtex
  • K. Frieler, M. Mengel, A. Levermann (2016) Delaying future sea-level rise by storing water on Antarctica. Earth System Dynamics 7 (1) pp. 203–210. doi bibtex
  • M. Mengel, J. Feldmann, A. Levermann (2016) Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West-Antarctic ice basin. Nature Clim. Change 6 (1) pp. 71–74. doi bibtex
  • I. Muresan, S. Khan, A. Aschwanden, C. Khroulev, T. Van Dam, J. Bamber, M. van den Broeke, B. Wouters, P. Kuipers Munneke, K. Kjaer (2016) Modelled glacier dynamics over the last quarter of a century at Jakobshavn Isbrae. The Cryosphere 10 (2) pp. 597–611. doi bibtex
  • M. L. Pittard, B. K. Galton-Fenzi, J. L. Roberts, C. S. Watson (2016) Organization of ice flow by localized regions of elevated geothermal heat flux. Geophysical Research Letters 43 (7) pp. 3342–3350. doi bibtex
  • M. L. Pittard, J. L. Roberts, B. K. Galton-Fenzi, C. S. Watson (2016) Sensitivity of the Lambert-Amery glacial system to geothermal heat flux. Ann. Glaciol. pp. 1–13. doi bibtex
  • A. Robel, E. Tziperman (2016) The role of ice stream dynamics in deglaciation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface doi bibtex
  • J. Seguinot, I. Rogozhina, A. P. Stroeven, M. Margold, J. Kleman (2016) Numerical simulations of the Cordilleran ice sheet through the last glacial cycle. The Cryosphere 10 (2) pp. 639–664. doi bibtex
  • I. Weikusat, D. Jansen, T. Binder, J. Eichler, S. H. Faria, F. Wilhelms, S. Kipfstuhl, S. Sheldon, H. Miller, D. Dahl-Jensen, T. Kleiner (2016) Physical analysis of an Antarctic ice core—towards an integration of micro- and macrodynamics of polar ice. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A 375 (2086) doi bibtex
  • Q. Yan, Z. Zhang, H. Wang (2016) Investigating uncertainty in the simulation of the Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Piacenzian. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121 (4) pp. 1559–1574. doi bibtex
  • F. A. Ziemen, R. Hock, A. Aschwanden, C. Khroulev, C. Kienholz, A. Melkonian, J. Zhang (2016) Modeling the evolution of the Juneau Icefield between 1971 and 2100 using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). J. Glaciol. 62 (231) pp. 199-214. doi bibtex


  • B. de Boer, A. M. Dolan, J. Bernales, E. Gasson, H. Goelzer, N. R. Golledge, J. Sutter, P. Huybrechts, G. Lohmann, I. Rogozhina, A. Abe-Ouchi, F. Saito, R. S. W. van de Wal (2015) Simulating the Antarctic ice sheet in the late-Pliocene warm period: PLISMIP-ANT, an ice-sheet model intercomparison project. The Cryosphere 9 (3) pp. 881–903. doi bibtex
  • E. Bueler, W. van Pelt (2015) Mass-conserving subglacial hydrology in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model version 0.6. Geoscientific Model Development 8 (6) pp. 1613–1635. doi bibtex
  • P. Dickens (2015) A Performance and Scalability Analysis of the MPI Based Tools Utilized in a Large Ice Sheet Model Executing in a Multicore Environment. In Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing. pp. 131-147. Springer International Publishing. doi bibtex
  • J. Feldmann, A. Levermann (2015) Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet after local destabilization of the Amundsen Basin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112 (46) pp. 14191–14196. doi bibtex
  • J. Feldmann, A. Levermann (2015) Interaction of marine ice-sheet instabilities in two drainage basins: simple scaling of geometry and transition time. The Cryosphere 9 (2) pp. 631–645. doi bibtex
  • K. Frieler, P. U. Clark, F. He, C. Buizert, R. Reese, S. Ligtenberg, M. van den Broeke, R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann (2015) Consistent evidence of increasing Antarctic accumulation with warming. Nature Clim. Change 5 pp. 348–352. doi bibtex
  • N. R. Golledge, D. E. Kowalewski, T. R. Naish, R. H. Levy, C. J. Fogwill, E. G. W. Gasson (2015) The multi-millennial Antarctic commitment to future sea-level rise. Nature 526 (7573) pp. 421–425. doi bibtex
  • G. Stuhne, W. Peltier (2015) Reconciling the ICE-6G C reconstruction of glacial chronology with ice sheet dynamics: The cases of Greenland and Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 120 (9) pp. 1841–1865. doi bibtex
  • R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann, A. Ridgwell, K. Caldeira (2015) Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Science Advances 1 (8) doi bibtex


  • G Adalgeirsdottir, A. Aschwanden, C. Khroulev, F. Boberg, R. Mottram, P. Lucas-Picher, J. H. Christensen (2014) Role of model initialization for projections of 21st-century Greenland ice sheet mass loss. J. Glaciol. 60 (222) pp. 782–794. doi web bibtex
  • T. Albrecht, A. Levermann (2014) Fracture-induced softening for large-scale ice dynamics. The Cryosphere 8 (2) pp. 587–605. doi web bibtex
  • T. Albrecht, A. Levermann (2014) Spontaneous ice-front retreat induced by disintegration of adjacent ice shelf in Antarctica. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 393 pp. 26–30. doi bibtex
  • J. Feldmann, T. Albrecht, C. Khroulev, F. Pattyn, A. Levermann (2014) Resolution-dependent performance of grounding line motion in a shallow model compared to a full-Stokes model according to the MISMIP3d intercomparison. J. Glaciol. 60 (220) pp. 353–360. doi web bibtex
  • R. Fischer, S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, G. A. Schmidt (2014) A system of conservative regridding for ice-atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM). Geoscientific Model Development 7 (3) pp. 883–907. doi web bibtex
  • C. Fogwill, C. Turney, K. Meissner, N. Golledge, P. Spence, J. Roberts, M. England, R. Jones, L. Carter (2014) Testing the sensitivity of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to Southern Ocean dynamics: past changes and future implications. Journal of Quaternary Science 29 (1) pp. 91–98. doi web bibtex
  • C.J. Fogwill, C.S.M. Turney, N.R. Golledge, D.H. Rood, K. Hippe, L. Wacker, R. Wieler, E.B. Rainsley, R.S. Jones (2014) Drivers of abrupt Holocene shifts in West Antarctic ice stream direction determined from combined ice sheet modelling and geologic signatures. Antarctic Science 26 pp. 674–686. doi web bibtex
  • N. R. Golledge (2014) Selective erosion beneath the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during LGM retreat. Antarctic Science 26 (6) pp. 698–707. doi bibtex
  • N. R. Golledge, L. Menviel, L. Carter, C. J. Fogwill, M. H. England, G. Cortese, R. H. Levy (2014) Antarctic contribution to meltwater pulse 1A from reduced Southern Ocean overturning. Nature Communications 5 doi bibtex
  • A. Levermann, R. Winkelmann, S. Nowicki, J. L. Fastook, K. Frieler, R. Greve, H. H. Hellmer, M. A. Martin, M. Meinshausen, M. Mengel, A. J. Payne, D. Pollard, T. Sato, R. Timmermann, W. L. Wang, R. A. Bindschadler (2014) Projecting Antarctic ice discharge using response functions from SeaRISE ice-sheet models. Earth System Dynamics 5 (2) pp. 271–293. doi web bibtex
  • M. Mengel, A. Levermann (2014) Ice plug prevents irreversible discharge from East Antarctica. Nature Clim. Change 4 pp. 451–455. doi bibtex
  • S. H. R. Rosier, J. A. M. Green, J. D. Scourse, R. Winkelmann (2014) Modeling Antarctic tides in response to ice shelf thinning and retreat. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 119 (1) pp. 87–97. doi bibtex
  • J. Seguinot, C. Khroulev, I. Rogozhina, A. P. Stroeven, Q. Zhang (2014) The effect of climate forcing on numerical simulations of the Cordilleran ice sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum. The Cryosphere 8 (3) pp. 1087–1103. doi web bibtex
  • F. A. Ziemen, C. B. Rodehacke, U. Mikolajewicz (2014) Coupled ice sheet-climate modeling under glacial and pre-industrial boundary conditions. Climate of the Past 10 (5) pp. 1817–1836. doi web bibtex


  • A. Aschwanden, G. Adalgeirsdottir, C. Khroulev (2013) Hindcasting to measure ice sheet model sensitivity to initial states. The Cryosphere 7 (4) pp. 1083–1093. doi web bibtex
  • R. Bindshadler, 27 others (2013) Ice-sheet model sensitivities to environmental forcing and their use in projecting future sea-level (The SeaRISE Project). J. Glaciol. 59 (214) pp. 195–224. web bibtex
  • P. Dickens, T. Morey (2013) Increasing the scalability of PISM for high resolution ice sheet models. In Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops PhD Forum (IPDPSW), 2013 IEEE 27th International. pp. 1336–1344. doi bibtex
  • N. Golledge, R. Levy, R. McKay, C. Fogwill, D. White, A. Graham, J. Smith, C. Hillenbrand, K. Licht, G. Denton, R. Ackert., S. Maas, B. Hall (2013) Glaciology and geological signature of the Last Glacial Maximum Antarctic ice sheet. Quaternary Science Reviews 78 pp. 225 – 247. doi web bibtex
  • M. Habermann, M. Truffer, D. Maxwell (2013) Changing basal conditions during the speed-up of Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. The Cryosphere 7 (6) pp. 1679–1692. doi web bibtex
  • S. Nowicki, 30 others (2013) Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the SeaRISE ice sheet modeling project: II. Greenland. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface 118 (2) pp. 1025–1044. doi bibtex
  • S. Nowicki, 30 others (2013) Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the SeaRISE ice sheet modeling project: I. Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface 118 (2) pp. 1002–1024. doi bibtex
  • F. Pattyn, 28 others (2013) Grounding-line migration in plan-view marine ice-sheet models: results of the ice2sea MISMIP3d intercomparison. J. Glaciol. 59 (215) pp. 410–422. web bibtex
  • W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans, C. H. Reijmer, R. Pettersson, V. A. Pohjola, E. Isaksson, D. Divine (2013) An iterative inverse method to estimate basal topography and initialize ice flow models. The Cryosphere 7 (3) pp. 987–1006. doi web bibtex
  • C. Rodehacke, A. Voigt, F. Ziemen, D. Abbot (2013) An open ocean region in Neoproterozoic glaciations would have to be narrow to allow equatorial ice sheets. Geophys. Res. Letters 40 (20) pp. 5503–5507. doi bibtex
  • A. M. Solgaard, J. M. Bonow, P. L. Langen, P. Japsen, C. S. Hvidberg (2013) Mountain building and the initiation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 392 pp. 161 - 176. doi web bibtex
  • R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann (2013) Linear response functions to project contributions to future sea level. Climate Dynamics 40 (11–12) pp. 2579–2588. doi web bibtex


  • T. Albrecht, A. Levermann (2012) Fracture field for large-scale ice dynamics. Journal of Glaciology 58 (207) pp. 165–176. doi web bibtex
  • A. Aschwanden, E. Bueler, C. Khroulev, H. Blatter (2012) An enthalpy formulation for glaciers and ice sheets. Journal of Glaciology 58 (209) pp. 441–457. doi bibtex
  • N. Golledge, C. Fogwill, A. Mackintosh, K. Buckley (2012) Dynamics of the Last Glacial Maximum Antarctic ice-sheet and its response to ocean forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi web bibtex
  • N. Golledge, A. Mackintosh, 8 others (2012) Last Glacial Maximum climate in New Zealand inferred from a modelled Southern Alps icefield. Quaternary Science Reviews 46 pp. 30–45. doi bibtex
  • P. Langen, A. Solgaard, C. Hvidberg (2012) Self-inhibiting growth of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 (L12502) doi bibtex
  • A. Levermann, T. Albrecht, R. Winkelmann, M. A. Martin, M. Haseloff, I. Joughin (2012) Kinematic first-order calving law implies potential for abrupt ice-shelf retreat. The Cryosphere 6 pp. 273–286. web bibtex
  • F. Pattyn, C. Schoof, L. Perichon, 15 others (2012) Results of the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, MISMIP. The Cryosphere 6 pp. 573–588. web bibtex
  • W. J. J. van Pelt, J. Oerlemans (2012) Numerical simulations of cyclic behaviour in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). Journal of Glaciology 58 (208) pp. 347–360. doi web bibtex
  • A. Solgaard, P. Langen (2012) Multistability of the Greenland ice sheet and the effects of an adaptive mass balance formulation. Climate Dynamics doi bibtex
  • R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann, K. Frieler, M.A. Martin (2012) Increased future ice discharge from Antarctica owing to higher snowfall. Nature 492 pp. 239–242. doi web bibtex


  • T. Albrecht, M. Martin, M. Haseloff, R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann (2011) Parameterization for subgrid-scale motion of ice-shelf calving fronts. The Cryosphere 5 pp. 35–44. web bibtex
  • A. Levermann (2011) When glacial giants roll over. Nature 472 pp. 43–44. web bibtex
  • M. A. Martin, R. Winkelmann, M. Haseloff, T. Albrecht, E. Bueler, C. Khroulev, A. Levermann (2011) The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK) – Part 2: Dynamic equilibrium simulation of the Antarctic ice sheet. The Cryosphere 5 pp. 727–740. web bibtex
  • A. M. Solgaard, N. Reeh, P. Japsen, T. Nielsen (2011) Snapshots of the Greenland ice sheet configuration in the Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Journal of Glaciology 57 (205) pp. 871–880. doi bibtex
  • L. S. Sorensen, S. B. Simonsen, 6 others (2011) Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (2003–2008) from ICESat data – the impact of interpolation, sampling and firn density. The Cryosphere 5 (1) pp. 173–186. doi web bibtex
  • R. Winkelmann, M. A. Martin, M. Haseloff, T. Albrecht, E. Bueler, C. Khroulev, A. Levermann (2011) The Potsdam Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM-PIK) Part 1: Model description. The Cryosphere 5 pp. 715–726. web bibtex


  • R. Calov, R. Greve, 9 others (2010) Results from the Ice-Sheet Model Intercomparison Project-Heinrich Event INtercOmparison (ISMIP HEINO). Journal of Glaciology 56 (197) pp. 371-383. web bibtex


  • E. Bueler, J. Brown (2009) Shallow shelf approximation as a “sliding law” in a thermodynamically coupled ice sheet model. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surface 114 (F3) doi bibtex


  • E. Bueler, J. Brown, C. Lingle (2007) Exact solutions to the thermomechanically coupled shallow ice approximation: effective tools for verification. J. Glaciol. 53 (182) pp. 499–516. web bibtex
  • E. Bueler, C. S. Lingle, J. A. Kallen-Brown (2007) Fast computation of a viscoelastic deformable Earth model for ice sheet simulation. Ann. Glaciol. 46 pp. 97–105. web bibtex


Click here to edit this list.


  • G. Jouvet, J. Seguinot, S. Ivy-Ochs, M. Funk (2016) Modelling the diversion of erratic boulders by the Rhone Glacier during the last glacial maximum. J. Glaciol. submitted bibtex
  • J. Feldmann, A. Levermann (2016) From Heinrich Events to cyclic ice streaming: the grow-and-surge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model. The Cryosphere Discussions 2016 pp. 1–19. doi bibtex
  • N. R. Golledge, Z. A. Thomas, R. H. Levy, E. G. W. Gasson, T. R. Naish, R. M. McKay, D. E. Kowalewski, C. J. Fogwill (2016) Antarctic climate and ice sheet configuration during a peak-warmth Early Pliocene interglacial. Climate of the Past Discussions 2016 pp. 1–27. doi bibtex


  • M. A. Martin, A. Levermann, R. Winkelmann (2015) Comparing ice discharge through West Antarctic Gateways: Weddell vs. Amundsen Sea warming. The Cryosphere Discussions 9 (2) pp. 1705–1733. doi web bibtex


  • R. Winkelmann, A. Levermann, K. Frieler, M. A. Martin (2012) Uncertainty in future solid ice discharge from Antarctica. The Cryosphere Discussions 6 (1) pp. 673–714. web bibtex


  • Ed Bueler, Constantine Khroulev, Andy Aschwanden, Ian Joughin, Ben E. Smith (2009) Modeled and observed fast flow in the Greenland ice sheet. SUBMITTED web bibtex
publications.txt · Last modified: 2016/10/07 08:13 by Ed Bueler
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